Madhava Nidana Chapter 15 Chardi Nidanam

Madhava Nidana Chapter 15 Chardi Nidanam
Mar 2023

This article explains Madava nidaana 15th chapter "Chardi Nidanam". Causes, pathology and symptoms of Chardi are explained in this chapter.
Read - Acharya Madhavakara: His Work 'Madhava Nidana', Legacy, Amazing Facts

Table of Contents

Types Causes for Chardi Definition and Pathogenesis Purvarupa of Chardi Vataja Chardi SymptomsPittaja Chardi SymptomsKaphaja Chardi Symptoms Tridoshaja Chardi SymptomsSymptoms of incurability Agantuja Chardi SymptomsKrimija Chardi SymptomsSymptoms of incurability of chardiChardi Upadrava


Chardi (vomiting) is of five types. They are - one from each dosha, fourth from the combination of all the three together and fifth from the sight of unpleasant things, etc. (1)

The five kinds of chardi are -

  • Vataja Chardi
  • Pittaja Chardi
  • Kaphaja Chardi
  • Tridoshaja (sannipataja) Chardi
  • Agantuja Chardi (that occurring from sight of unpleasant things)
    Read - Chardi Roga - Vomiting: Ayurveda Explanation, Types, Symptoms
  • Vataja ChardiPittaja ChardiKaphaja ChardiTridoshaja (sannipataja) ChardiAgantuja Chardi (that occurring from sight of unpleasant things)
    Read - Chardi Roga - Vomiting: Ayurveda Explanation, Types, Symptoms

    Causes for Chardi

    Etiological Factors

    Indulgence in foods which are very watery, very unctuous (fatty), unpleasant and very salty;Taking meals at odd time, in excess quantity and of unaccustomed food Excessive physical exertionFear, sudden emotions / anxiety,IndigestionInfection by wormsPregnancy in womenEating foods very quicklySight of terrific, fearsome, ugly and such other unpleasant things

    Definition and Pathogenesis

    The above said causes and similar others cause sudden increase of doshas. These doshas fill the mouth of the patient (with the contents of the stomach which have moved upwards) and come out forcibly through the mouth, causing immense discomfort (pain in different parts and organs of the body). This is called Chardi - vomiting. (2-4)
    Read - Chardi Nigrahana Gana - Antiemetic Group Of Herbs Of Charaka: Review

    Purvarupa of Chardi

    Premonitory symptoms of vomiting

    The premonitory symptoms of vomiting are - nausea (oppression in the chest), obstruction of belching, thin (watery) and salty salivation and aversion to foods and drinks. (5)

    Vataja Chardi Symptoms

    The symptoms of vataja chardi include - pain in the region of the heart and flanks, dryness of the mouth, pain / discomfort in head and umbilicus, cough, hoarseness of voice, and pricking sensation / pain all over the body. The vomiting occurs with great sounds during belching, mixed with froth, with less of fluids, composed of blackish material, thin, astringent in taste, brought out (vomited) with difficulty, scanty, severe bouts and severely troublesome (accompanied with pain all over the body). (6)

    Pittaja Chardi Symptoms

    The symptoms of pittaja chardi are - fainting (loss of consciousness), severe thirst, dryness of mouth, burning sensation in the head, palate and eyes: darkness before the eyes & dizziness. In the vomiting, yellowish, greenish or black with reddish tinge, very hot, bitter material is expelled along with burning sensation. (7)

    Kaphaja Chardi Symptoms

    The symptoms of Kaphaja Chardi are - stupor / drowsiness, sweet taste in the mouth, excessive salivation, a feeling of happiness (which is abnormal) or contentment (no desire to eat food anymore), feeling sleepy, anorexia, and feeling of heaviness of the body. While vomiting, the patient brings out unctuous, thick, sweet tasting, and white coloured material, accompanied with horripilations and little or no pain. (8)

    Tridoshaja Chardi Symptoms

    The symptoms of tridoshaja chardi are - pain in the abdomen, indigestion, anorexia, burning sensation, thirst, dyspnoea (increased / difficult respirations), and delusions, being severe and constant. The vomited material would be salty or sour, blue or red in colour, semisolid and hot. (9)
    Read - Chardi Roga Chikitsa: Ayurvedic Treatment For Vomiting, Limitations

    Symptoms of incurability

    When the aggravated vayu moves in upward direction and blocks the channels of faeces, sweat, urine and water (body fluids) in a person in whom the other doshas (pitta and kapha) have already undergone severe aggravation, it brings with it the doshas accumulated in the koshta (visceral organs, stomach and intestines) in the upward direction. In this case the person vomits the material which would have the smell and colour similar to those of faeces and urine. Apart from this, the patient will also suffer from severe thirst, dyspnoea (increased or difficult respiration) and hiccough which are constant. The person would have vomiting with continuous bouts occurring with great force associated with severe discomfort. Such type of vomiting is incurable and the person will face death in quick time. (10-11)

    Read - Charaka Chardi Chikitsa - 20th Chapter | Vomiting Treatment

    Agantuja Chardi Symptoms

    The fifth kind of vomiting occurs due to sight and contact of things which are unpleasant, pregnancy, indigestion (caused due to excessive build-up of ama), unaccustomed foods and parasitic infections (worms). This is called agantuja chardi. Even in this type of vomiting, the symptoms of doshas (described earlier) shall be considered.

    Krimija Chardi Symptoms

    In krimija chardi (vomiting caused by parasitic infection) pain in the abdomen and nausea are prominent. Apart from this, the symptoms of krimija hrdroga (heart disease produced by worms) will also be found. (12-13)
    Read - Hrid Roga: Causes, Types, Symptoms of Heart Disease As Per Ayurveda

    Symptoms of incurability of chardi

    Vomiting is incurable when it occurs in emaciated persons, when the vomiting is continuous with too many bouts, is associated with complications and when the vomited material consists of blood, pus and white shining particles. The vomiting devoid of complications shall be considered as curable and should be treated promptly. (14)
    Read - Indigestion Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

    Chardi Upadrava

    Complications of vomiting
    (The complications of vomiting are - cough, dyspnoea (increased / difficult respiration), fever, hiccough, thirst, mental torpidity, heartache (heart disease) and feeling of being in darkness (darkness in front of the eyes or feeling as if enveloped by darkness).

    Thus ends the chapter on Chardi Nidanam in Madhava Nidana text written by Acharya Madhavakara.

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